On the world's financial markets and stock exchanges. Part 9

On the world's financial markets and stock exchanges. Part 9

1. Fibonacci sequence

1.1 History of the discovery

In the 13th century, Thomas Aquinas formulated one of the basic principles of aesthetics - that objects with correct proportions are pleasing to the human senses. Pleasant - i.e. understandable or correct. 
Thomas Aquinas referred to a direct link between beauty and mathematics, which can often be "measured" and found in nature. Human instincts have a positive response to regular geometric shapes, both in the natural environment and in man-made objects, such as works of art. He was referring to the principle that Fibonacci had discovered. 
In early 1175, Leonardo Fibonacci of Pisa, Italy, published his famous "Liber Abacci" (Abacus or Book of Calculus; abacus means account), which introduced to Europe one of the greatest discoveries of all time, namely the decimal numeral system, which included the position of zero as the first digit in a number series of entries. This system, which included the familiar symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9, became known as the Hindu-Arabic system and is now in common use. It would almost be an understatement to say that Leonardo Fibonacci was the greatest mathematician of the Middle Ages. In all, he wrote three significant mathematical works: The Book of Abacus, published in 1202, Practical Geometry, published in 1220, and The Book of Squares. Although he was the greatest mathematician of the Middle Ages, Fibonacci's only monuments are the statue opposite the Tower of Pisa across the Arno River and the two streets that bear his name, one in Pisa and the other in Florence. It seems strange that so few visitors to the 179-foot Falling Tower have ever heard of Fibonacci or seen his statue. Fibonacci was a contemporary of Bonannes, the architect of the Tower of Pisa, whose construction began in 1174. Both made contributions to world history, but one, whose contribution far surpasses the other, is almost unknown. 
In the Abacus Book, one of the problems posed gives rise to the sequence of numbers 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, 89, 144 and so on to infinity, known today as the Fibonacci sequence. 
The formula inherent in this sequence is the sum of any numbers placed next to each other in the sequence gives the next number of the sequence, namely 1+1=2, 1+2=3, 2+3=5, 3+5=8 and so on to infinity. 
Fibonacci sequence formula: 
F 1=1, F 2=1, Fn +2= Fn + Fn +1,
where n = 1, 2, 3, 4... 

Fn = (((1+√5)/2)ⁿ - ((1-√5)/2)ⁿ)/√5 Binet formula 

1.2 Basic concepts and definitions

After the first few numbers in a sequence, the ratio of any number to the next oldest number is about 0.618 to 1, and to the next youngest number is about 1.618 to 1. The further along the sequence, the closer the ratio approaches the number φ "phi", which is an irrational number of 0.618034... The ratio between numbers one through one in the sequence is approximately 0.382, which is the inverse of 2.618 (1:2.618). 
Thus these ratios asymptotically (slower and slower) tend towards some constant ratio, but it is irrational, i.e. with an infinite sequence of digits in the fractional part. 
1:1 = 1.00 - which is less than φ by 0.618;
2:1 = 2.0 - which is greater than φ by 0.382;
3:2 = 1.5 - which is greater than φ by 0.1180;
5:3 = 1.6667 - which is greater than φ by 0.0486;
8:5 = 1.6 - which is less than φ by 0.0180.

Phi is the only number which, after adding it to 1, gives its own inversion: 0.618+1=1:0.618. This alliance of additive and multiplicative properties gives rise to the following sequence of equalities:
0,6182 = 1 - 0,618;
0,6183 = 0,618 - 0,6182;
0,6184 = 0,6182 - 0,6183;
0.6185 = 0.6183 - 0.6184, etc. 

or, alternatively:
1,6182 = 1 + 1,618;
1,6183 = 1,618 + 1,6182;
1,6184 = 1,6182 + 1,6183;
1.6185 = 1.6183 + 1.6184, etc. 

Some formulations from the interrelated properties of these four ratios can be represented as follows:
1,618 - 0,618 = 1;
1,618 * 0,618 = 1;
1 - 0,618 = 0,382;
0,618 * 0,618 = 0,382;
2,618 - 1,618 = 1;
2,618 * 0,382 = 1;
2,618 * 0,618 = 1,618;
1,618 * 1,618 = 2,618.

Besides 1 and 2, any Fibonacci number multiplied by 4 and added to some selected Fibonacci number gives another Fibonacci number:
3 * 4 = 12; + 1 = 13;
5 * 4 = 20; + 1 = 21;
8 * 4 = 32; + 2 = 34;
13 * 4 = 52; + 3 = 55;
21 * 4 = 84; + 5 = 89, etc.

The square of any Fibonacci number is equal to the number in front of it multiplied by the number after + or - 1:
5 * 5 = (3 * 8) + 1;
8 * 8 = (5 * 13) - 1;
13 * 13 = (8 * 21) + 1.

The plus and minus alternate constantly. This is another manifestation of an integral part of Elliott wave theory - the rule of alternation.

1.3 Psychological rationale for understanding the Golden Ratio

1.618 (or 0.618) is known as the Golden Ratio or Golden Ratio - widely used in geometry, mathematics and architecture in ancient Greece. Its harmony is pleasing to the eye and is an important phenomenon in music, art, architecture and biology (Luca Pacioli - the divine proportion)
Any segment can be divided so that the ratio between its smaller and larger parts equals the ratio between the larger part and the whole segment (Figure 3-3). This ratio is always 0.618. 

Figure 2.

AB = 1
1/φ = φ/(1- φ)
Φ * φ + φ = 0
Φ = (1 +√5)/2 =1,618034...

Man subconsciously seeks divine proportion - it is needed to satisfy his need for comfort (see Thomas Aquinas one of the basic principles of aesthetics - the feelings of man are pleasant to objects having correct proportions).
Pleasant means intelligible.
See chart of the market.

1.4 Practical application

The golden ratio is ubiquitous in nature. Indeed, the human body is an embodiment of the Golden Ratio in everything from external dimensions to facial structure. Man is divided in the belt by the Fibonacci ratio. The average value is approximately 0.618. This ratio remains true separately for men and separately for women, a perfect sign of creation "in the likeness". Is everything in the development of mankind also a creation "in the likeness"?
The absurd Fibonacci rabbits pop up in the most unexpected places. These numbers are undoubtedly part of a mystical natural harmony, which is pleasant to touch, pleasant to look at and even pleasant to sound at. Music, for example, is based on the 8-note octave. On the piano, this is represented by 8 white keys and 5 black keys - a total of 13. It is no coincidence that the musical harmony that seems to bring the ear the greatest pleasure is the major sixth sound. The note E (E) sounds like a ratio of 0.625 to the note C (C). Only 0.006966 more than the exact Golden Ratio, the ratios of the major six-voice cause a pleasant oscillation in the cochlea of the inner ear, an organ which is just shaped like a logarithmic spiral.
The continuous finding of Fibonacci numbers and the golden spiral in nature precisely explains why the proportion 0.618034 to 1 is so attractive in art. Man sees a representation of life in art which is based on the golden ratio.

Nature uses the Golden Ratio in its most intimate building blocks and in its most advanced patterns, from such small forms as atomic structures, brain microcapillaries and DNA molecules to such huge ones as planetary orbits and galaxies. It concerns phenomena as diverse as the arrangement of quasicrystals, planetary distances and orbital periods, the reflection of light rays off glass, the brain and nervous system, musical arrangements and the structure of plants and animals. Science is quick to prove, there really is a basic law of proportion in nature. By the way, you hold an object with two of your five extensions (two arms, two legs and the head), which have three articulated parts (shoulder, forearm and hand), five extensions at the ends (fingers) with three articulated parts (phalanges) - the wave sequence 5-3-5-3.
Pyramids in Mexico:
1 tier 16 steps;
2nd tier 42 steps;
3rd tier 68 steps;
Why such a number of steps at different levels?
16 * 1.618 = 26; 16 + 26 = 42 steps;
26 * 1, 618 = 42; 42 + 26 = 68 steps.
The earliest adherents were the architects of the Egyptian pyramids near the city of Giza, who encoded phi knowledge into their designs about 5000 years ago. The Egyptian constructors deliberately implemented the Golden Ratio into the Great Pyramid, giving its facade an inclined height of 1.618 times half its base so that the vertical height of the pyramid at the same time was the root of the square of the length of half the base multiplied by 1.618.
The Egyptians of the time of the pharaohs, considered phi not as a number, but as a symbol of the creative function or reproduction in an infinite sequence. To them it symbolised "the fire of life, the male seed, the logos - to which the Gospel of St John refers". Logos, a Greek word, was variously defined by Heraclitus and later pagan, Jewish and Christian philosophers to denote the rational order of the universe, the inherent law of nature, the life-giving force hidden in action, the creative power of the universe to govern and satiate the world.
As you read this difficult description, bear in mind that those people could not see clearly all that they felt. They had no charts and the Law of Waves to make a clear model of the development of nature, and they did what they could to describe those organisational principles shaping the natural world that they discerned. If those ancient philosophers were right that a universal creative force governs and pervades the universe, then why should it not govern and saturate the human world? If forms throughout the universe, including the human body, brain and DNA reflect phi forms, can human activity reflect it in the same way? If phi is the life force in the universe, can it be the impetus behind the development of human productive activity? If phi is a creative function, can it drive human creative activity? If human development is based on production and reproduction in an 'infinite sequence', is it not reasonable that such a process has a spiralling phi form and that this form is discernible in the movement of the aggregate assessment of its productive capacity, i.e. the financial markets? Just as the dedicated Egyptians studied the hidden truths of construction and growth in the universe behind visible randomness and chaos (something that was finally rediscovered by modern "chaos theory" in the 1980s), so too can financial markets, in our view, be properly interpreted by considering its essence rather than what it appears to be upon superficial examination. Financial markets are not a random shapeless mess reacting to current events, but a remarkably accurate record of the rigorous structure of human development.
How do we use φ? In what units do we measure? Points, currency - no, in %!
An important mathematical point that confirms the philosophical point is that it is a fractional, irrational number and it will never be a whole. A perfect proportion can be aspired to, but it does not exist in the world, nor does a perfect price. Everything created by nature or God is created according to that proportion, from quanta to the universe. The market is part of our lives and we walk in those proportions - it is not chaos!


Corrections sometimes roll back by the Fibonacci percentage of the previous wave. As shown in Figure 4-1. 4-1, a sharp correction tends to roll back 61.8% or 50% of the previous wave, Lateral corrections more often tend to roll back 38.2% of the previous impulse wave, as shown in Figure 4-2. 4-2. 
The most important thing in the market is : move-correction-move-corridor. 
And where to buy? Where will the price reach? There are many levels: 38.2%, 50.0%, 61.8%, rarely 26.3%, and 76.4%. 
If the market corrects from 38.2% to 61.8%, further moves are likely to continue. You can measure the size of the correction or its targets by Fibonacci levels. 

There are many trading systems based on Fibonacci levels described by Fisher, Demark, Murphy, Tom Joseph, Williams, and Dinapolli.
Let's analyze on real examples: 
Fibonacci + candlestick configuration is a simple trading strategy. It can be aggressive or conservative. Upon completion of any movement, we use the Fibonacci levels to determine the size of the expected retracement and open a trade position. Once the correction is completed at levels of 38.2%, 50% or 61.8%, we can determine the target area for a further move and reopen the trade position. Fibonacci levels should be set aside in the direction of price movement!
Aside from the lines, there are also: Gann fan, ellipses and Fibonacci arcs.

2.Elliott Wave Theory

The law of waves is Ralph Nelson Elliott's discovery of how the behaviour of society or of a crowd develops and changes in the form of recognisable patterns. Using stock market data as his main research tool, Elliott identified thirteen movement patterns or "waves", which are repeated over and over again in the flow of market prices. He gave them names, definitions, illustrated them and described the regularities of their appearance and development. Now this law is named after him - the Elliott Wave Law. 

2.1 History of discovery

Ralph Nelson Elliott was an engineer. After a serious illness in the early 1930s, he began analysing stock prices, especially the Dow Jones index. After a series of successful predictions he published a series of articles in Financial World Magazine in 1939. They were the first to present his viewpoint that Dow Jones index movements follow certain rhythms. According to Elliott, all these movements follow the same law as the tide - the tide is followed by an ebb, an action (action) by a counteraction (reaction). This pattern is time-independent because the structure of the market, taken as a whole, remains unchanged. 
Elliott wrote: "The law of nature includes the most important element in consideration - rhythmicity. The law of nature is not a system, not a method of playing the market, but a phenomenon characteristic of the course of any human activity. Its application in forecasting is revolutionary!" 
Elliott based his discoveries on the Law of Nature. Elliott's law of waves suggests that the same law that creates living things and galaxies is inherent in the mood and activity of man in the masses. The stock market is a creature of man and therefore reflects his character.
What is psychology? It is the reaction of people or groups to certain events. What do we see in the market? Psychology! From the way we behave, the prediction of the situation is derived. 

What drives any moment of activity? Motive, desire. Secret desires or explicit desires have one foundation - instincts! The basic human instincts:
herd (the crowd) 
The herd instinct contradicts all 3. Here comes the main difficulty of trading - the struggle with the self! And the herd is primitive and easy to predict using Elliott waves.

2.2 The types of waves

Wave 3 - the most powerful, driving wave; Wave 5 - the wave of "latecomers" (remember the Dow Theory). The classic five-wave pattern is rare and fractal, i.e., each wave of a larger time period consists of a completed cycle of waves of a smaller time period. 
There are two types of waves: 
waves that cause price changes, i.e. driving waves - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5; 
Waves that counter-trend, i.e. corrective waves - A, B, C.
Why 5 and 3? Should the underlying structure necessarily consist of five and three waves? Think about it and you will realize that this is the necessary minimum to ensure a progressive movement with both forward and backward elements at the same time, and therefore the most effective way of such movement. One wave does not contain a pullback. The minimum set to form a rollback is three waves. Three waves in both directions will not provide a forward movement. In order to advance in one direction regardless of the duration of the rollback, the movement in the main direction must consist of at least five waves just to exceed the rollback from three waves and still contain those rollback waves (the well-known philosophical concept of unity and struggle of opposites). Although, to ensure this, there could be more waves than in our case, but the most rational figure of guaranteed forward movement is 5-3, and nature usually follows the most rational way - the Fibonacci numbers and the optimal way of development of anything. After the end of the wave cycle shown in the figure above, a second similar cycle of five upward waves begins, followed by three downward waves. A third phase of movement, also consisting of five upward waves, then develops. This third phase ends the five-wave movement with one wave level higher than the level of the waves it consists of. The result is shown in Figure 1-3 up to the peak indicated by (5).
At the peak of wave (5), a downward movement of an appropriately higher wave level begins, again consisting of three waves. These three waves of the next wave level "correct" the upward movement of five waves of the same level. The result is another complete cycle, but of a higher wave level, as shown in Figures 1-3. Let us now note that within the corrective pattern shown as wave [2] in Figures 1-3, waves (a) and (c), directed downward, consist of five sub-waves: 1, 2, 3, 4 и 5. Similarly, wave (b), which is directed upwards, consists of three sub-waves: a, b and c. This structure reveals a very important point: driving waves are not always directed upwards and corrective waves are not always directed downwards. The style of a wave is determined not only by its absolute direction, but mainly by its relative direction. With the exception of four digressions, which will be discussed later, waves are divided into a driving style wave (five waves) when travelling in the same direction as the wave one wave level above and of which they are a part, and into corrective style waves (three waves or one of their varieties) when travelling in the opposite direction. Waves (a) and (c) developing in the same direction as wave [2] are moving waves. Wave (b) is corrective because it corrects wave (a) and is developing in the opposite direction from wave [2]. In summary, the main essence of the Law of Waves is that on any wave level, a movement in the same direction as the movement of a wave one wave higher, is developed by five waves, while a pullback against the movement of a wave higher, is developed by three waves. Driving + Corrective = Cycle.
Highest level 1 + 1 = 2;
lower level 5 + 3 = 8;
next level down 21 + 13 = 34;
next level down 89 + 55 = 144. 

2.3 Practical application

Driving waves are composed of five waves of defined characteristics and always develop in the same direction as the driving wave one wave level above. They are straightforward and relatively easy to recognise and explain:
in moving waves, wave 2 never rolls back more than 100% of the size of wave 1 
wave 4 never retreats by more than 100% of the size of wave 3 
wave 3 always travels farther than the end of wave 1
Wave 3 is often the longest and never the shortest of the three active sub-waves ( 1, 3, and 5) of the driving wave.
The purpose of moving waves is to move forward, and these rules of wave construction guarantee that it will be so. 
There are two types of moving waves:
diagonal triangles (diagonal triangles).
The most common driving wave is an impulse.
Many wave impulses contain what Elliott called wave lengthening. Wave extensions are stretched pulses with an extended wave structure. A huge number of pulses do contain elongation in one and only one of its three active waves.

Elliott used the word "failure" to describe a situation in which the fifth wave does not exceed the top of the third wave. We prefer the less ambiguous term "truncation" or "truncated fifth". We can verify that this is indeed a wave truncation by verifying that the assumed fifth wave contains the necessary five sub-waves, as shown in Figures 1-11 and 1-12. Truncation usually occurs after an extremely strong third wave. 
Bull/Bear Market Truncation 

A diagonal (sloping) triangle is a driving pattern, although not yet an impulse, as it has one or two corrective traits. Diagonal triangles substitute for impulses at certain points in the wave structure. As in an impulse, no counteracting sub-wave (composite wave level smaller) rolls back more than the size of the previous active sub-wave here and the third sub-wave is never the shortest. However, diagonal triangles are the only five-wave structures developing in the direction of the main movement in which wave 4 almost always enters (overlaps) the price territory of wave 1. On rare occasions a diagonal triangle may end in a truncation, although in our experience the size of such truncations is minimal. 

Ending Diagonal 
An Ending Triangle is a particular type of wave that develops mainly in place of the fifth wave when the previous movement (wave 3) has gone "too far and too fast", as Elliott put it. A very small percentage of terminal triangles appear in place of wave C in structures A-B-C. In all cases, they are found in the final components of the model one wave level higher, showing the exhaustion of the strength of the movement in this senior wave level. Final triangles take the form of a wedge between two converging lines and each of their composite sub-waves, including waves 1, 3, and 5, is subdivided into a 'triplet', which in other cases is a corrective wave feature. The final triangle is illustrated in Figures 1-15 and 1-16 and is shown in its typical position in the impulse waves of the upper wave level. 

An upward diagonal triangle heralds a bearish mood and is usually followed by a sharp fall in prices, at least to the level where the triangle began. A diagonal descending triangle is also a bullish omen, which usually triggers an upward correction in prices. A fifth wave lengthening, a truncated fifth wave, and an ending diagonal triangle all encapsulate the same fact: an impending spectacular change in direction. At some pivot points, two such phenomena have occurred together at different wave levels, multiplying the strength of the subsequent move in the opposite direction. 
Market prices move against the direction of the senior wave level only with seeming effort. It may appear that resistance from the senior wave level is preventing the pullback from developing into a full-blown driving structure. This struggle between the two opposing wave levels makes corrective waves less recognizable than driving waves, which always develop with relative ease in the direction of the movement of the senior wave level. As a result of this conflict between level movements, corrective waves are slightly more diverse than driving waves. Moreover, they sometimes increase or decrease in complexity and develop so that a structure that is formally a subwave of the same wave level may appear to belong to a different wave level because of its complexity or time duration. For all these reasons, it is at times difficult to fit corrective waves into a recognizable pattern until they are over and behind us. Since the ending of corrective waves is less predictable than for driving waves, the analyst should be more cautious in his analysis when the market is in a fluctuating, corrective mood than when prices are moving steadily in one direction. The single most important rule, which can be formulated from the study of various corrective patterns, is that pullbacks are never "fives". Only the driving waves are "fives". For this reason, an initial five-wave movement against a higher wave level is never the end of a correction, only part of it. 
Corrections occur in two ways:
Sharp pullbacks bend steeply against the direction of movement of the senior wave level. 
Lateral corrections, though always performing a final pullback from the previous wave, usually contain movement towards its starting point or even beyond, forming the appearance of a sideways movement. 
Individual corrective patterns fall into four main categories: 

Zigzags (5-3-5): 

Flats (3-3-5):

Triangles (3-3-3-3):
Four types, three of which are convergent:
and one divergent type:
reverse symmetrical. 

The single zigzag in a bull market is a simple three-wave descending pattern marked A-B-C. The sequence of sub-waves is 5-3-5 and the top of wave B is noticeably lower than the beginning of wave A, as shown in Figure 1-22 and 1-23.
Figure 1-22 Figure 1-23 

In a bear market, the correction in the form of a zigzag develops in the opposite direction as shown in Figure 1-24 and 1-25. For this reason, a zigzag in a bear market is referred to as an inverted zigzag. 

Sometimes zigzags are formed twice or at most three times in a sequence, especially when the first zigzag has not reached the standard target. In these cases, each zigzag is separated by an intermediate "triplet", forming what is called a double zigzag or triple zigzag. These structures are similar to impulse wave lengthening, but less common. 

As it turns out, triangles reflect the balance of forces that cause sideways movement, which is usually associated with a decrease in volume and the amplitude of price fluctuation has become entrenched in the Russian language as "volatility". Triangles contain five overlapping waves, which are subdivided into 3-3-3-3 models and labelled a-bc-d-e. The contour of any triangle is formed by a pairwise connection of the endpoints of waves a and c, b and d. Wave e may not touch or cross the a-c line and, in fact, our experience tells us that this is more likely to happen than not. 

There are two kinds of triangles: 

Within the convergent varieties, there are three types:
descending, as shown in Figure 1-42. 

The rarer divergent triangle has no variation. It always forms as shown in Figure 1-42, which is why Elliott called it an "inverted symmetric" triangle


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GAP on Forex
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Murphy believes that the result of market forecasting by means of GAPs depends on the place of their formation on the price chart, and also distinguishes four types of this candlestick pattern:Simple - its appearance is characteristic for the calm market, this kind of gap is not of interest for forecasting its further direction. Its formation on a specific asset indicates a small interest of players in this asset, so even a small amount of investment can contribute to its appearance. Analysts ignore this signal.On the Gap - In terms of potential profits, such a GAP is interesting. It appears in the final phase of the formation of a certain price pattern and may indicate a significant change in the market situation. It occurs less frequently, but it is closely related to almost all known patterns and is a confirmation of the signals from them. Its appearance often occurs against the background of growing trading volume and its market void is rarely, rarely or almost never overlapped by the price. Murphy derived his own pattern for this GAP - the higher the volume at its formation, the less likely it is to overlap the price in the long run.On the breakaway - it is characterized by formation along with the trend, it is often situated in its middle, several price gaps may appear at once. It is a signal to the continuation of the current trend even at small volumes of trade. We should count the points before the Gap formation and multiply the result by 2 to find the number of points the price will be able to pass before the reversal.On the flying out - it is formed in the final phase of the trend with the gaps of 2 and 3 types preceding it. Traders use it as a signal to open opposite deal when the price is in the range of its channel and rushes to its closing. Jack Schwager is a trader best known for making accurate forecasts of price movements on the futures market. He is head of Fortune Group holding company, researches dynamics of hedge funds, conducts seminars on "Market Analytics".J. Schwager, like J. Murphy, also distinguishes four types of GAP:Normal - not informative, recommends ignoring it.Gap on breakdown - it is formed when the price leaves a certain range. Schwager recommends it to be used as a strong trading signal, provided that this GAP does not overlap the price for several trading days.Acceleration Gap - formed in parallel with the acceleration of the trend and can be formed several times for several consecutive days.Exhaustion Gap - drawn at the final stage of a trend, it is used as a signal of an imminent change in the trend.Many successful traders are excellent analysts, who are able to conduct a deep analysis of the market and give the most accurate quotes forecasts. You should listen to their recommendations. 
3 major cryptocurrency trader mistakes
3 major cryptocurrency trader mistakes Cryptocurrency is in vogue these days, and its popularity continues to grow. With the frequent emergence of new cryptocurrencies and people with high social clout, such as Ilon Musk, scribbling daily tweets on the subject, the concept of digital currencies continues to gain momentum.Subsequently, millions of people from all over the world are turning to the most famous cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin, Lightcoin, Etherium and others to take advantage of lucrative investment opportunities and make quick money.Cryptocurrency trading mistakes to avoidWhile it's true that smart investments in cryptocurrencies can indeed yield impressively high returns in relatively short periods of time, it's also important to understand the volatility of cryptocurrency trading.By having the necessary knowledge and information in advance, you can hedge against potential losses and only make investments that bring you returns. Here are 3 major mistakes that almost every novice cryptocurrency trader makes and that you should try to avoid in order to make better investments. Mistake #1. Making emotionally motivated trading decisions Even though cryptocurrency trading involves risks, trading decisions are usually made strategically with a lot of market fundamentals, trends and signals in mind.With all the hype surrounding cryptocurrencies, people are often tempted to deviate from their strategies and make decisions based on emotion due to winner's syndrome, environmental pressure or similar biases.People may even start panic selling as soon as they see an unexpected negative trend in the market. While people like to believe that deviating from their strategy and making decisions based on emotion can help them minimise losses in a falling market, this is not entirely true.Even if things don't go as planned, it is best to review your strategy and develop a contingency plan instead of making decisions based on emotion. Using modern trading software and automation can help you minimise emotional biases in your trading strategy. Mistake #2. Ignoring risk management techniques Just like any other investment, diversifying your portfolio in cryptocurrency trading can go a long way in helping you mitigate risk. A good strategy to diversify your crypto portfolio is to trade in pairs. Popular cryptocurrency pairs include BTC/EUR, BTC/USD, BTC/BCH, BTC/ETH and BTC/GBP.Another very effective method of risk management is the use of a stop loss. This tool allows you to automatically liquidate your investment as soon as the value of your asset reaches a specified price. You can use stop-losses after carefully analyzing your risk tolerance and incorporate this method into your broader cryptocurrency trading strategy. Mistake #3. Using an unsuitable trading platform Buying and selling cryptocurrencies largely depends on the type of platform you use to make transactions and track price trends. Using the wrong cryptocurrency trading platforms can make it difficult to track and analyse market trends.This will deprive you of vital trading signals and information that can lead to a positive investment outcome. People are often inclined to use unsuitable platforms and end up making bad decisions.In order to trade cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoins in the most efficient and effective way, it is important that you choose a legitimate platform.Regardless of your expertise or experience, the platform should offer tools that allow anyone to engage in profitable cryptocurrency trading. Conclusions With the right information, knowledge and assistance, cryptocurrency trading can be seen as an incredibly effective tool for generating income and multiplying your start-up capital. If you manage to stick to best practices and avoid typical mistakes, positive results are almost guaranteed.
Stop Loss on Forex
Stop Loss on Forex A Stop Loss is an exit order that is used to limit the amount of loss a trader can take on a trade if the trade goes against him. It also eliminates the worry that every trader inevitably faces when being in a losing trade without a plan. No trading system will make a profit on every trade all the time, and losing trades are natural. Successful risk management means minimising losses. A stop-loss can be an effective solution to this.If you decide to use a stop loss, it is important to find a good place for it. If the stop order is too close to the current price, there is a risk that price volatility will hit this order during a false move, and then go in the direction you expected, so you will lose money and earn nothing. If the stop order is too far away from the current price, the trader could be vulnerable to large losses if the market reverses against his expectations. Algorithm for choosing Stop Loss types There are many types of stop losses. Here's the algorithm for choosing what works for you: Step 1: Discretionary or system stop?The position of the stop loss can depend on whether you are a discretionary trader or a system trader. In discretionary trading, it is up to the trader to decide which trades to make each time. The trader places a stop order at a price at which he does not expect the market to trade according to his forecast. In doing so, he can take into account various factors that may vary from trade to trade.In system trading, trading decisions are made by the trading system. A trader either opens positions manually following the trading system signals, or the trading process is automatic. Here Stop Loss orders are placed according to the trading system's risk/profit and win/loss ratios. Step 2: Determine the size of stop loss.Stop LossThe size of this stop loss depends on the trader's account size. The most common is 1% of the account per trade. For example, if your capital is $1,000, you can afford to lose $10 on, say, a EUR/USD trade. That's 100 pips per 0.01 lot (1 micro lot). The upper limit of such a stop is considered to be 5%. As you can see, this approach is not a logical answer to what is actually happening on the price chart.Stop on the chartThe size of this stop depends on the technical analysis of the price action carried out by the trader. This is usually where a support level is determined and a stop loss is placed below it for a long position. Technically oriented traders like to combine these exit points with stop rules for charting stop orders. Such stops are often set at the highs/minimums of the fluctuations.Volatility StopThe size of this stop depends on the amount of volatility in the market. If the volatility is high and the price fluctuates widely, a trader will need a larger stop to avoid the stop. In the case of lower volatility, a trader puts a smaller stop. Volatility can be measured using indicators such as Bollinger Bands.Time StopsTime stops are based on a predetermined trade time. Imagine you are a day trader, trading only during a certain session and closing your positions before it ends. You can set a time limit, after which your position will be closed. You can do this with Expert Advisors (EA) or with trading robots.Margin StopsThere is also one aggressive approach to forex trading that we do not recommend. Some traders take advantage of the fact that forex dealers can liquidate their clients' positions almost as soon as they activate the margin call. A trader may divide his capital into several equal portions and deposit only one portion into his account. He then chooses the size of the position and the potential margin call acts as a stop loss. Be forewarned that these trades are only appropriate with small amounts of money. Please note that this type of trading is intended only for a maximum of one open position at a time. Step 3: Static or trailing stop?The static stop retains its place once set. The trailing stop adjusts as the trade moves in the trader's favour to further reduce the risk of an error in the trade.For example, a trader has opened a long position in the EUR/USD at $1.3100, with a stop loss of 50 pips at $1.3050, and a take profit of 150 pips at $1.3200. No changes will be made to your order until a profit on your open position exceeds 50 pips. If the Euro rises 50 pips to $1.3150, a trader may adjust his stop order by 50 pips to $1.3100. When you move your stop loss to the entry level (as in this case), it becomes a break-even stop order: if price reverses and the trader's stop order triggers, he will not get any money, but he will also lose nothing. Every time the price moves 50 pips from the current stop loss in favor of the trader, the server sends an order to change the current stop loss level to within 50 pips of the current price. In other words, Trailing Stop automatically moves your Stop Loss order following the price.Trailing Stops are mainly used by traders who enjoy trading trends but do not have the ability to follow the price movement all the time.Trailing Stops in MT4. To set an automatic trailing stop in MT4, right-click the order in your terminal window, select "Trailing Stop" and select the desired trailing stop size. Please note that the minimum level for the automatic trailing stop is 15 pips. It is important that the trailing stop loss is set on the client's trading platform and not on the server. If the trader closes the terminal or loses the internet connection, the trailing stop will be deactivated, but the stop loss set by the trailing stop will remain active.To deactivate the trailing stop, select "None" in the "Trailing Stop" sub-menu. If you want to disable trailing stops for all open positions and pending orders, select "Clear All" from the same menu.Step 4: Waiting for trading resultsOnce the Stop Loss is set, do not increase it. Only move your stops in the direction of the trade (rolling stops). You have already made your decision. If the market went against you and your stop was hit, analyse your trade and see what you did wrong. Don't get too upset about the failure. What you need is to succeed in the next trade, so move on to the next opportunity.
Using the MACD indicator in forex trading
Using the MACD indicator in forex trading The moving average convergence/divergence indicator (MACD) is one of the best solutions to use when working in the financial markets. Learning how to implement the tool is crucial to a trader's success. We will examine three common MACD strategies. What is the MACD? This tool is one of the most commonly used in technical analysis. It is an impulse indicator that tracks the trend. That is, it determines whether the trend is upward or downward. Therefore, it can be used to provide trading signals and identify trading opportunities. How does the MACD work? The MACD uses three components in its work: two moving averages and a histogram. The two lines may look like ordinary moving averages (SMAs) but are in fact multi-level exponential moving averages (EMAs). The basic, slower line is the MACD line, while the faster line is the signal line.If two moving averages converge, they are said to be "converging", and if they move away from each other, they are "diverging". The difference between the two lines is represented on the histogram. If the MACD was trading above the nought line it would confirm an uptrend, below it the indicator would be used to confirm a downtrend.If the market price was found to be on an upward trend, making higher highs and lower lows, and breaking through key resistance levels - traders can open long positions. While traders can choose to go short if the asset is in a downtrend, which is characterised by lower highs as well as lower lows or breaks support levels. Three common MACD trading strategies There are a number of MACD strategies that can be used to find opportunities in the markets. Three of the most popular strategies include:CrossoversHistogram reversalZero crosses Crossovers The MACD line together with the signal line can be used in much the same way as a stochastic oscillator, with the crossover between the two lines providing buy and sell signals. As with most strategies, a buy signal is given when the shorter, more reactive line - in this case, the MACD line - crosses the slower signal line. Conversely, when the MACD line crosses below the signal line, it gives a bearish sell signal.Because the crossover strategy is lagging in nature, it is based on waiting for movement before opening a position. The main problem the MACD has with weak market trends is that by the time the signal is generated, the price may have reached a reversal point. This would be considered as a "false signal". It is worth noting that strategies that use price action to confirm the signal are often seen as more reliable. Histogram reversal The histogram is probably the most useful part, and the bars represent the difference between the MACD and the signal lines. When the market price is moving strongly in the direction, the histogram will increase in height, and when the histogram is contracting, it is a sign that the market is moving more slowly.This means that as the bars of the histogram move further away from zero, the two moving average lines move further away from each other. Once the initial expansion phase is over, a hump shape is likely to emerge - a signal that the moving averages are contracting again, which could be an early sign of an impending crossover.This is the leading strategy, unlike the lagging crossover strategy mentioned above. The reversal is based on the use of known trends as a basis for positioning, which means that the strategy can be executed before the market movement actually occurs. Zero crosses The zero-cross strategy is based on either EMA crossing the zero line. If the MACD crosses the zero line from below, a new uptrend may occur, while a MACD cross from above is a signal that a new downtrend may start.This is often seen as the slowest signal of the three, so you will generally see fewer signals, but also fewer false reversals. The strategy is to buy - or close short - when the MACD crosses the zero line from below, and sell - or close long - when the MACD crosses the zero line from above.This method should be used with caution because its delayed nature means that fast, volatile markets will often generate signals released too late. However, as a solution to provide reversal signals for long wide moves, it can be very useful. When using a zero-crossing strategy, it is important to understand where to exit the market or make a stop. When is the best time to use the MACD? There is no such thing as the 'best' time to use the indicator, it will depend entirely on you, your personal preferences and trading plan. For some, there may not be a right time to apply it, as they do not take a technical approach to analysis or prefer to use many other indicators to identify price action.However, if you decide to use MACD, the best timing will depend on which of the above strategies you want to use. If you choose a lagging strategy, you will have to keep a close eye on the MACD in order to get signals as quickly as possible. But if you choose a leading strategy such as the bar chart, you could spend less time monitoring, as the signals should appear earlier.
Profit by DMI and ADX
Profit by DMI and ADX Directional Movement Indicator (DMI)Average Directional Movement Index (ADX) The vast majority of profitable trading systems involve some form of trend following, however most of the time they are not in a trend strong enough to produce worthwhile returns. For the reason that successful traders employ the tactic of taking small losses and letting the profits flow, non-trend markets seem to generate only small losses. As a result, those who follow the trend tend to lose money and most of the time in most markets. Their cherished dream of success is due to finding a random market with a trend strong enough to bring in big profits. A common method of "finding" big trends is to invest in different markets in the hope of hitting one of the profitable markets. Unfortunately, such investing adds more losing markets than winning ones. The usual procedure for investing consists of seeking the best market results by hitting a few good markets while having to endure a wide range of bad ones.Fortunately, there is a very practical solution to the problem of identifying and measuring the trend direction of the market. A proper interpretation of the Average Directional Movement Index (ADX) allows traders to significantly improve their performance in finding good markets and cutting off the bad ones. We have probably done more research and work with the ADX than any other indicator because we have found the ADX to be an amazingly valuable technical tool with many practical applications. In order to give our readers a complete understanding of the ADX, we must begin with a basic explanation of the Directional Movement Indicator (DMI) used to derive the ADX. The DMI Concept Directional Movement is a concept that J. Wells Wilder Jr. first described in his 1978 book "New Concepts in Technical Trading System", a classic work on technical analysis that we heartily recommend. (See "Recommended Reading" at the end of the chapter.) The Directional Movement Indicator (DMI) is a useful and versatile technical study that has two remarkable functions. First, the DMI itself is an excellent market directional indicator. Second, one derivative of the DMI is the important Average Directional Movement Index (ADX), which not only allows us to identify markets that are trending, but also provides a way to assess trend strength.The calculation of directional movement (DI) is based on the assumption that when there is an uptrend, today's price peak should be higher than yesterday's. Conversely, when there is a downtrend, today's bottom price should be lower than yesterday's. The difference between today's and yesterday's peak is an upward move or +DI. The difference between today's and yesterday's troughs is a downward move or -DI. Internal days where today's peak or trough is not superior to yesterday's are essentially ignored. The positive and negative DI are separately averaged over a period of a few days and then divided by the average "true range". The results are normalised (multiplied by 100) and shown as oscillators. For readers with mathematical inclinations, we have included detailed calculations. Fortunately, we can now produce the necessary indicators with only three or four taps on the computer keyboard. Calculation of Directional Movement (DM - Directional Movement) A Directional Movement is the largest part of today's price range that is outside yesterday's range.Outside days will have both +DM and -DM.     Use the larger one.The inside days have zero DM.Limit days will have a DM calculated as in the diagrams shown above. For example, for an upper limit day (first chart) +DM will be the difference between A and the upper limit reached on the next C day. ADX calculation 1. Measure the directional movement (DM).2) Measure the true range (TR - true range) which is defined as the greater of:a) The distance between today's peak and today's trough.b) The distance between today's peak and yesterday's close.c) The distance between today's trough and yesterday's close.Divide DM by TR to obtain a directional indicator (DI- directional indicator).DI=DM/TRThe result can be positive or negative. If it is positive, it is the percentage of the true range that has risen on the day. If it is negative, it is the percentage of true range that is down for the day. +DI and -DI are usually averaged over a time period. Wilder recommends 14 days. Then we get the following calculations:+DI14 = +DM14/TR14 or -DI14 = -DM14/TR14+DI and -DI are two of the three values normally shown as DMI. The third is the ADX obtained as follows:4.   Calculate the difference between +DI and -DI. DI DIFF=|[(+DI)-(-DI)]|5.   Calculate the sum of +DI and -DI.DISUM=|[(+DI)+(-DI)]|6.    Calculate the directional index of motion (DX).DX=( DI DIFF/ DISUM)*100100 normalises the value of DX so that it falls between 0 and 100. The DX itself is usually very volatile and is not shown. 7.   Calculate the moving average DX to obtain the Average Directional Movement Index (ADX). The smoothing is usually on the same number of days as the +DI and -DI calculation.8.   Further smoothing can be done by calculating a derivative of the ADX moment type called the average directional movement index rating (ADXR -average directional movement index rating).ADXR = (ADX t + ADX t-n) /2where t is today and t-n is the day the ADX calculation started.Displayed on the computer screen as an oscillator, directional movement moves upwards when +DI is greater than -DI. If +DI is less than -DI, the movement is directed downwards. As the two lines diverge, the directional movement increases. The greater the difference between +DI and -DI, the greater the directionality of the market or the steeper the trend. Wilder used 14 days as the basis of his calculations because he considered 14 days an important half cycle. We think there are more optimal time periods depending on what you are going to do with DMI and ADX.DMI studies on a computer monitor usually appear as three lines: +DI, -DI and ADX. (Some programs present the ADX separately for convenience.) As we said, the results of DMI calculations are normalized (multiplied by 100), so the lines will fluctuate between 0 and 100. The important ADX indicator is derived directly from +DI and -DI and measures the magnitude of the market trend. The higher the ADX, the more directional the market has moved. Correspondingly, the lower the ADX, the less directional the market has moved. Note that when we say "directional" we can mean either upward or downward. The ADX does not distinguish between a rising and falling market. It is important to clearly understand that the ADX measures the magnitude of a trend, not its direction. It is perfectly normal for the ADX to clearly rise while prices are falling because its rise reflects the increasing strength of the downtrend.The other oscillators, +DI and -DI, show the direction. When +DI crosses with -DI and goes higher, the trend is up. When +DI crosses with -DI and goes lower, the trend is downward. The further apart the lines then diverge, the stronger the trend.In his book, Wilder also describes the calculation of the average directional moving index rating or ADXR (average directional moving index rating). This is simply the sum of the ADX at the beginning of the period (say 14 days ago) and today's ADX divided by two. This extra smoothing of the ADX was done by Wilder to attenuate the fluctuations to the point where ADXR can be used in a market comparison calculation called the Commodity Selection Index. From our perspective, the ADX has been sufficiently smoothed initially and additional smoothing is not necessary. In fact, for our purposes, the smoothing that has been done to produce the ADXR reduces the performance of the indicator. DMI Performance Testing Quite a few DMI and ADX performance tests have been published. The results have generally been better than most other indicators. Here we will give some examples.Bruce Babcock has tested the DMI and described the results in his book "The Dow Jones - Irwin Guide to Trading Systems" (see references at the end of the chapter). When testing the DMI, Babcock entered into a long position at the close when the general directional movement was positive. When the general directional movement was negative, the system conversely entered into a short position. The results of Babcock's testing showed that over a five-year period, the 28-day DMI was profitable over a wide range of markets. However, the internal losses were significant because no stops were applied. The system tested by Babcock was the simplest use of the indicator and many of Wilder's basic rules were broken. Importantly, Wilder's suggestion to use waiting for the top or bottom of the day to cross the DI on entry was ignored (we found Wilder's recommendation for entry significantly reduces twitching). In Babcock's test, income was taken clearly at the crossovers and no attempt was made to take income earlier. The fact that the DMI showed significant returns under these conditions is amazing! Although we do not recommend trading DMI in this way, the Babcock test showed that a fairly long DMI could prove to be a useful indicator for setting entry times.A more realistic test/optimisation was conducted by Frank Hochheimer of Merill Lynch Commodities. Hochheimer tested two cases: case 1, which followed Wilder's basic rules, and case 2, which simply traded on crossovers. Most of the markets used 11 years of data. Since this test was also optimization, it tested +DI and -DI by independently changing the number of days used in each (something we don't recommend doing). Not surprisingly, case 1, which followed Wilder's suggestion of entering a buy or sell at the level of the previous day's peak or trough, proved more profitable. Optimisation of DI periods showed that the best time intervals lay between 14 and 20 days. Our independent testing of ADX on different data sets confirms the profitability of this range from 14 to 20 days with the best results shown on 18 days.The Encyclopedia of Technical Market Indicators, Colby and Meyers did a very curious DMI test with the ADX built in. They entered at the +DI and -DI intersection only when the ADX was rising. They exited when the ADX fell or a reverse crossover occurred. They only tested the New York Composite on weekly data, using intervals from 1 to 50. The best returns were on time intervals of 11 to 20 weeks. They noted that of the many indicators they tested, the DMI method had the fewest losses and is worth further investigation.At first glance it may appear that Colby and Mairs were following the trend, trading only on the rise of the ADX. However, because they applied trading based on +DI and -DI crossovers after the ADX rise, the system was more of a counter-trend method because the rising ADX was the result of the presence of the trend before the current crossover. When +DI and -DI crossed after the ADX rose, it was a signal to trade in the opposite direction of the trend as measured by the rising ADX.We find the ADX moderately useful as a timing indicator, despite some positive test/optimisation results mentioned earlier. The DMI is a trend following indicator, and is subject to the same weaknesses as any form of trend following. When markets are not in trend, +DI and -DI cross in different directions constantly, producing one painful twitch after another. These are sensitive indicators that give good results in trend-following markets, but it is precisely this sensitivity that leads to twitching when the market gets into a sideways trend. However, we are very enthusiastic about using the ADX as a derivative of the DMI as a filter to help select the most successful trading method for each market at any time. Using ADX We suspect that the ADX indicator is often neglected due to the obvious drawback of its lack of correlation with price movements. Someone examining the ADX rising in passing while prices are falling could conclude that the indicator gives false signals about the direction of the market. It is critical to properly understand from the start that the ADX alone does not tell you the direction of the market. The ADX can fall when prices are rising and rise when they are falling. The purpose of the ADX is to measure the strength of a trend, not its direction. To determine the direction of the market, you must use additional indicators such as DMI. Some technical analysts attach great importance to the ADX level as an indicator of trend strength, and they would argue that a value of 28 indicates a stronger trend than a value of 20. We have found that the direction of the ADX is much more indicative than its absolute value. A change upwards, for example from 18 to 20,shows a stronger trend than a negative change from 30 to 28. A good basic rule of thumb could be formulated as follows: as long as the ADX is rising, any ADX value above 15 indicates a trend. We recommend you become familiar with ADX and use it in conjunction with your favourite technical indicators. You will soon discover certain levels of rising ADX produce outstanding results with your favourite indicator. One indicator works well when the ADX rises above 15, and another works well when the ADX rises above 25. When the ADX begins to decline at either level, it is an indication that the market has gone sideways and is forming a sideways trend. We'll explore the significance of rising and falling ADX in more detail and suggest suitable trading strategies. Rising ADX A rising ADX indicates an advancing strong trend and suggests the incorporation of trend-following trading strategies. Technical indicators that need strong trends, such as moving average crossovers and breakout methods, to generate large returns should work very well. Almost any trend following method should produce excellent results in a favourable environment, predicted by a rising ADX. Keep in mind that a rising ADX also provides valuable information about which trading technique might fail. Knowing what not to do can be just as important as knowing what to do. For example, popular trading techniques use overbought/oversold oscillators, such as RSI or stochastic oscillator, and look for sell signals when the market is trading at overbought levels. However, if the ADX is rising steadily, it should serve as a warning that a strong uptrend is underway and the oscillators' sell signals should be ignored. When the ADX is rising, overbought/oversold indicators tend to approach one extreme or the other and remain at that level, giving repeated signals to trade against the trend. If you follow the oscillator signals, the losses can become very significant. The fact that the ADX is rising does not necessarily mean that we cannot use our favourite oscillators. It simply means that we must accept signals going in the direction of the trend. A falling ADX Falling ADX indicates a non-trending market, where we should use a counter-trend strategy instead of trend following techniques. Overbought or oversold oscillators, which give signals to buy on troughs and to sell on rises, are the preferred strategies when the market is in such a trading corridor. Indicators such as the stochastic oscillator and RSI should give correct signals when the price is fluctuating within the limited area of its trading range.Due to the fact that buying on troughs and selling on uptrends produces very modest returns at best, many traders prefer to trade only in the direction of the major trends. In that case, it would be best to simply ignore trend-following signals while the ADX is falling. Of course, ideally one would like to have a profitable counter-trend strategy in addition to a trend following strategy, and apply each method in line with the direction of the ADX. ADX Problems: Spikes We would be doing a bearish disservice by claiming that ADX will solve every problem a trader can encounter. ADX also has its own disadvantages. One problem is that on long periods (we prefer 18 days, as mentioned earlier), which are best applied to most markets, the ADX suddenly changes direction, taking the form of a spike. Spikes usually occur at market peaks when prices suddenly shift from a strong uptrend to a strong downtrend. The source of the problem with the ADX is that it cannot correctly recognise a new downtrend. ADX will still include in its calculations a historical period with a strong move in the positive direction, while at the same time taking data from a new period with a strong move in the negative direction. As a result of the input conflict, the ADX will fall for a while until the old movement in the positive direction is squeezed out of the data, at which point the ADX will begin to rise again due to the new downtrend. In a market that has produced a spike, the ADX may not alert to the trend in time, preventing it from catching much of the rapid downtrend.We will try to find a solution to this problem. One possibility is to switch to a shorter ADX period when the market is at a level where a spike can be expected. We have noticed that some markets often produce spikes (such as metals and grains), while others tend to produce flat tops (Treasuries and securities). ADX does very well on flat tops without the kind of problems that arise on spikes. We would prefer to refrain from any subjective classification of markets, if at all possible, so we continue our search for more objective solutions. Fortunately, market troughs rarely take the form of spikes and the ADX does a very timely job of identifying uptrends as they develop. ADX problems: Lagging One characteristic of the ADX that can turn into a problem is that it is slightly slower than many other technical studies. When the ADX begins to rise, many trend-following indicators will already give a signal to enter. For example, +DI and -DI will cross before the ADX begins to rise. It is more than likely that at the time of this early entry signal, the ADX was still falling, so the entry will need to be ignored. In practice, in this situation, the rising ADX becomes a signal of timing to enter the market in the direction of the trend. Faster technical studies are able to determine the direction of the trend, and the ADX is used to set the time of entry. During a trend, faster indicators can provide additional entry signals which, if the ADX continues to rise, must be followed. You will find that some thought and planning will be required to coordinate the ADX with other technical tools.We view the delay as a small price to pay in order to avoid the costly twitching that can occur if you enter a trade during an ADX deviation. However, the lag time can be set depending on market characteristics and individual trader's preferences. A few markets are more likely to be in a trend than others. For example, the currency markets have moved well over the last few years. In markets which have been trending well, the time frame of the ADX could be shortened to produce faster signals. If lagged entries are frustrating for you, shorten the ADX time frame. If twitching frustrates you, keep the ADX period at 18 days. Lagging is not a problem when using a counter-trend strategy during an ADX drop. Day Trading with ADX Perhaps due to distortions caused by large gaps between yesterday's close and today's open, ADX does not work as well when applied to charts with a period of less than one day. Using a 5-minute chart and ADX with a period of 12, the gaps between the open and close can be wiped out after an hour of trading, and the ADX will give the usual first hour trend strength information. However, many day traders prefer to use 20-minute or 15-minute charts, in which case it is difficult to avoid possible DMI and ADX distortions caused by gaps between the close and the open.More often than not, the standard 18-day ADX can provide valuable long-term information which helps in day trading. The day trader should pay attention to the presence of any trend indicated by a rising ADX, and only enter short-term trades if they are going in the same direction as the trend. When the ADX is falling, short-term trades can be held in either direction. Almost any day trading method can be improved by first checking the ADX to determine if a trend exists.In short, we consider the ADX to be one of the most useful technical indicators. When we trade our management programmes, we usually look at the ADX first before performing further analysis. We find that the trend measure extracted from the ADX is an invaluable guide in choosing the best strategy for each market. The simple but important information provided by the ADX allows us to increase our winning percentage in trades by a significant amount. Many of our trend-following results tests only show the importance and value of the ADX when it rises. Waiting for the ADX to rise often means a delay in relation to our desired entry time, but the belief in mandatory trading success combined with the obvious benefits of reducing the number of losing trades is a more important reward.In addition to its usefulness on entries, the ADX can be an exceptional help in timing exits from trades. An important pattern noted by Wilder is the possible short-term top or bottom, heralded by the intersection of the +DI, -DI and ADX lines. A market turning point often occurs when the ADX line first turns down, after the ADX crosses first +DI and then -DI from below. We agree with Wilder's conclusion that this downward pivot could be a good time to lock in gains following the trend, or at least close most contracts that are part of a profitable multi-contract position.The ADX can be very useful to exit in a different way. When the ADX is falling, it shows that we should take a small income instead of letting the income flow in. When the ADX is rising, it shows the possibility of large returns and therefore we should refrain from exiting prematurely. Having an accurate indication of when to take small profits and when to expect large returns can be a huge advantage to any trader. This rarely mentioned use of ADX can be just as important as its use in choosing an entry technique.
Profit - CCI
Profit - CCI Commodity Channel Index (CCI - Commodity Channel Index) The Commodity Channel Index was first described by Donald Lambert in the October 1980 issue of Commodities (now Futures) magazine. Despite CCI's 11-year history and its presence in almost all futures-oriented software packages, we know of few traders who actually use it. We do not know why, but we suspect that one of the reasons may be the lack of literature on this indicator, as well as Lambert's insistence on binding CCI to the theory of cycles. Despite the references to cycle theory, Lambert's original article is probably still the most accessible explanation of how to use CCI.Like most technical studies, CCI requires some understanding of its origins in order to be used effectively. The mathematical and statistical concepts behind CCI are a bit difficult to understand when first examined because its formula is more complex than RSI, MACD and the stochastic oscillator, which can be more or less intuitively understood. The CCI formula is partly statistical, which makes it difficult to show the relationship between the price change charts and the resulting indicator charts.The CCI formula creates a usable number that statistically indicates how far recent prices have moved away from the moving average. If prices have moved far enough, a trend is established and a trading signal is generated. We tend to divide the technical studies into two groups; those which are best used as counter-trend indicators, such as the RSI and the Percent R, and those which are good at following the trend, like the moving averages. The CCI is an indicator which follows the trend. An overview of Lambert's basic theories The CCI formula calculates a simple moving average of the average daily prices [(peak + trough + close)/3] and then calculates the average deviation. The standard deviation is the sum of the differences between the average price of each period and the simple moving average. The average deviation is then multiplied by a constant (Lambert suggests 0.015) and divides the difference between today's average price and the simple moving average. The result is presented as a single number, which can either be positive or negative. The trader can change the number of periods, which are used to calculate the simple moving average. As you might expect, shortening the time span makes the index faster and more responsive to small market movements, while lengthening the time span slows down the index and smooths out market volatility.On a computer screen, the CCI is usually displayed as an oscillator or histogram, which oscillates in different directions around the zero mark. Since the index measures how far prices have moved away from the moving average, the CCI allows us to measure the strength of a trend. In theory, the higher the value of the CCI, the stronger the trend and the more profitable the trade should be in the direction of the trend. Lambert originally developed the CCI to find the beginning and end of supposed seasonal cyclical price patterns. He felt the need to have an indicator that would identify where cycles start and end. This seems like a clear contradiction to cyclical theory, because if you know there is a cycle, you must know where it starts and where it ends, otherwise there is no cycle. The obvious need for an indicator like the CCI shows that imaginary cycles must have been completely uncontroversial and unrepeatable.Lambert made the moving average part of the formula modifiable so that the user could somehow adjust the CCI to the intended cycle length. His research showed that for best results, the moving average used in CCI should be less than one-third the length of the expected cycle. But the test results tables in the article showed that the five-period moving average performed best, regardless of cycle length (another indication of the weakness of Lambert's cycle assumption).CCI uses a simple moving average instead of an exponential one so that prices of the distant past will be discarded and will not affect the results. Some arbitrary constant of 0.015 used in the CCI formula has been added to scale the index so that 70 to 80 percent of the values fall into a channel between +100 percent and -100 percent. Lambert's premise was that fluctuations between channel boundaries were considered random and had no trading value. He suggested going long only when the CCI was above +100. A significant drop below +100 is considered a signal to exit a long position. The rules for a short position are the same: sell below -100, buy back above -100. As we mentioned earlier, Lambert did research which indicated that the CCI period length should be set to less than one third of the cycle length. He tested a number of different period lengths, ending with 20 as the standard number, but suggested that this number should be adjusted for each market individually. (We do not dispute that the period length should be set in such a way as to satisfy the historical data.) Twenty is the default value for CCI by most programs. Some positive test results Colby and Meyers in their book "The Encyclopedia of Technical Market Indicators" tested the CCI on weekly prices of the New York Composite using the original trading rules. This procedure seems to be a curve fitting, but their results are interesting. The most profitable time period tested turned out to be very long - 90 weeks. However, anything between 40 and 100 weeks gave good results and could easily be as profitable today as the 90 week period. Our caveats regarding optimisation can be found in chapter three.Colby and Meyers pointed out one important aspect of the 90-week CCI that should not come as a surprise. CCI on a 90 period almost always misses the early phases of an incipient trend. In today's stock market, skipping the early phases of a trend often means missing out on much of the potential return. Lambert's early research showed that the shorter-term CCI would be a leading or coincident rather than a lagging indicator, and Lambert used a time period of 5 to 20 days. To regulate the time lag produced by the 90 week CCI, Colby and Meyers decided to ignore the +/-100 extremes and use zero line crossings to produce earlier entry and exit signals. They called this indicator the "zero" CCI and found it much more advantageous than the original +/-100 signals. As an aside, note: even though when testing a trading system using the concept of zero CCI on weekly NYSE Composite data, Colby and Meyers got better results than the popular 39- and 40-week moving average systems now defended by many stock market traders, this does not mean anything yet. Using the CCI as a long-term trend indicator The monthly CCI can be very effective as an indicator of long-term market trends. Take a look at the following monthly charts with CCI signals with a period of 20 on the zero line instead of the +/-100 mark.The first chart is for the Japanese Yen. In addition to the sequence of trading signals there are two other noteworthy features of this chart.First, the faster the rise in the CCI from 0 to 100, the stronger and more decisive the trend it has detected. Second, the faster the fall in the CCI after it reaches 100 usually means that the trend is losing its strength and that profits should be protected by a halt at this point. On the treasuries chart we should note the use of CCI trend lines for early exits.We recommend trying to use a monthly CCI with a period of 20 for a longer-term directional move, while using a shorter-term indicator to set entry and exit times in the direction of the monthly trend. This strategy should be particularly effective during a rapid rise in the CCI from 0 to 100. After the monthly CCI peaks, it would be wise to consider suspending trading in this market until the CCI starts rising again.A situation similar to the monthly CCI can be seen on the weekly charts. A quick rise from 0 to 100 should definitely indicate an established trend. Try using the weekly CCI to set trading times in the direction of the monthly charts when the CCI is in a rising period. Exit when the weekly CCI makes a peak or when another indicator warns you that the intermediate-term trend is losing strength. An alternative strategy is to start trading small lots when the zero line is first crossed and then add positions as the CCI accelerates and the trend strengthens. Start closing positions when the CCI stops, indicating that the market is ending the move.Trading multiple positions based on weekly charts will obviously work best in markets with slower movement and controlled risk, where large long-term positions are preferred. Using the daily CCI Our research has shown that the 20-day CCI, used on its own, does not work well in most markets. Its main drawback of missing the beginning of strong trends can be a really negative trait in fast and volatile markets. This slowness can be overcome by using the 10-day (or even shorter term) CCI or by entering at zero. But faster methods become extremely vulnerable due to frequent twitching. We can always set the CCI to meet each market, but we are pretty sure it is just tweaking the curve and do not recommend this method.We recommend combining the CCI with another indicator for daily trading. Because one of the problems with the CCI is its tendency to err in estimating the volatility of trending markets, it seems logical to look to the DMI/ADX as a duplicate trend indicator. If the ADX is rising, then the market is in a trend, and it can begin to trade on the signals CCI. If the ADX is falling, then the market is volatile and should not be traded, at least not with a trend-following indicator such as the CCI. Exit after the CCI creates a peak and moves further towards the zero mark. An alternative exit strategy could be to use stops on the last peaks or troughs after the CCI correction has begun. Our testing has shown the usefulness of each of these basic approaches. A few observations Our research has shown that in a general sense CCI is a tool, in many ways similar to ADX, which can help in assessing the overall trendiness of the market. As we pointed out earlier, the faster the CCI rises, the stronger the market is trending. While it is mathematically possible for the CCI to move upwards when the market is not trending, this is unlikely in practice. Remember that the CCI can provide traders with important information even when it does not provide entry signals. If the market stays inside the +/-100 range most of the time, it shows no trend, so you should avoid this market or use a counter-trend strategy.We have found that the best markets to trade are those where the CCI has recently produced spikes multiple times, protruding beyond 100 in one direction. We have also observed that first trades against a set CCI trend are usually very unprofitable. If the market has been trending and showing a series of CCI moves on one side of the 100 range as we have just described, do not reverse your trading direction on the first CCI move that breaks the 100 mark in the opposite direction. A short pass to the opposite side of the range is probably an opportunity to add a new position, not a demonstration of a trend reversal.  Avoid jerking We have also seen that our often-recommended technique of waiting for confirmation after a trading signal is an exceptional method of avoiding most of the jitters when using CCI with a faster period. We have found that when CCI generates spikes after the +/-100 level, it is almost always better to wait for signal confirmation before making any moves. When the CCI rises above 100 wait for the market to produce a significantly higher close before buying. We have noticed that much of the 100 level breakout has only turned out to be a one or two day event, especially on the shorter term. The entry confirmation technique avoided most of the twitching and at the same time caught all the big moves. The confirmation technique also allows us to switch to the faster CCI we need to overcome the lag problem without getting caught in the twitching as one might expect. For example, a 10-day CCI with a confirmation requirement will produce much faster signals and probably produce twitching less often than a 20-day CCI applied in the normal way.
On the world's financial markets and stock exchanges. Part 11
On the world's financial markets and stock exchanges. Part 11 1. What is a trading strategy?  A trading system or strategy is the result of careful and meticulous study of the financial markets. It is the apogee and logical outcome of the future trader or active investor. It reflects all analytical work and willingness to react to any changes on the market.A trading system allows bringing orderliness into trading operations, adjusting prognostic methods to individual needs of a trader, removing or reducing the psychological burden during the decision-making process. Professionally built trading system is a pledge of success in carrying out operations.It is not enough just to analyze the market, it is also necessary to build a forecast and implement it, as well as take into account risks that the trader assumes.A trading system includes a certain set of conditions and rules that determine moments and order of performing the following actions:opening of a positionposition closingWhen constructing a TS, a number of questions should be answered:what tools to use when carrying out operations (stocks, commodities, currency pairs)?which method of analysis to use (technical, fundamental or a combination of these)?what time interval should be used?which indicators to use?operating principle (trend, channel)What lot to work with?what rules apply for opening and closing the position?How long should the position be held?how to set a stop-loss? 2. Basic rules for building a TS To build a trading strategy, the trader needs to consider the basic rules of constructing the TS:Positive expectation - a property of the system to be generally profitable over a long period of time. It is determined by the fact that the average profit of all trades during the testing period is greater than 0.Small number of rules.Stability of the system.Varying of trade lotsRisk control, capital management and diversification.Mechanistic nature of the system.Applicability.To correctly approach the construction of TS, taking into account deep understanding of how financial markets work, you should remember about some principles:Principle 1.Price is determined by the supply and demand ratio. Conclusion: Only the behaviour of the price is relevant.Principle 2. The future behaviour of prices is probabilistic.Conclusion: You can make a lot of money in the market if you estimate the probabilities correctly;the probability of winning increases with an investment horizon.Principle 3. The market moves along the path of least resistance.Conclusion: Overcoming resistance levels indicates the path of further movement.Principle 4. The market has inertia.Conclusion: do not count on a quick change in the direction of the price movement. 3. Options  Based on the aforementioned conditions, the main examples of TS operation are working on the level breakout and rebound (it's recommended to remember the theory of Dow about the construction and purpose of support and resistance levels, and the candlestick analysis).To begin with let's remember about types of resistance and support levels.First of all they are not just lines on the chart plotted on price highs and lows, they are zones, which are several points wide and are determined by how participants react to certain movements (spread, expectations, aggressiveness or conservativeness of entry, etc.)Resistance and support levels are of 2 types:inclined, which form price channelshorizontal, which are divided into 3 types- technical (built directly on the maximum and minimum price points or on the greatest contact)- psychological (they are usually round figures or price comfort levels for central banks)- historical (the same as technical but with a longer time horizon or built on a longer time frame).The levels are described in increasing order of importance. The passage of such levels has several stages:Piercing - the price passes the level (resistance or support) only by the shadow of the candle and then goes back. It is a "Warning!" signal and only confirms the presence of the level.A breakout is a signal to open a trading position.It appears when the price closes below the support or above the resistance level. It can be of 2 types:- Breakout with confirmation - when the price returns to the level, determining its changed status (resistance to support and vice versa). It is used for conservative strategy. It is the best signal! It is used less often, than the other varieties- Classical breakout - when the price goes sharply below (above) the level. It is a good variant for a pending order and happens much more often.As a rule, upon exiting the channel, the price makes a sure distance equal to the channel width - that's our profit according to TS work on breakout.The placing of pending orders in such TS is determined by general rules (buy-stop, buy-limit, etc.). A good example of breakout of a sloping price channel is a price exit from a triangle pattern.Question: Find the points of opening a trading position here.To determine the necessity of the concept of money management, you need to clearly understand the non-linear relationship between losses and profits that exists in trading in general. A loss of 10% would require you to make a subsequent profit of 11% to get back on track. And after a loss of 50%, you would need to make a profit of 100% to get back on track. The general consensus of analysts is that the maximum allowable loss, which would still allow a turnaround, is 30%. At this loss, it would be necessary to make a 50% profit afterwards - this is considered achievable. A loss of 50% or more is almost certain to result in the financial death of the investor. What is capital management? Rules for placing a stop - order.Selection of trading lots.The % of TS in the ratio of profitable to losing trades.The ratio of risk-return.When to close a trade or where to place the profit?The basic rule of stop-order installation:Stop order is placed only where there is a high probability of price moves in the opposite direction!Stops are placed on 2 principles:at levels of previous highs or lowsin target zones restricted by our deposit.The choice of trade lots is closely related to your deposit and is subject to the recommendation of not more than 10% of total trades at a time.The average percentage return of the trading system is 3 / 7, i.e. 30% of profitable trades. This is a perfectly working TS. A good one is 50/50. Here the explanation will be the risk-profit ratio or the rule of stop and profit order placement. A simple recommendation: for each point of loss, the expected profit should be 3 points. Example. A stop order is placed 30 pips away from the current price value. In this case the expected return should be 90 pips. Using the risk-profit ratio 3 / 7, the total loss after 10 trades will be 7x30 = 210 points, while the profit will be 3x90 = 270, which is a profit according to the results of the reporting period.The most difficult thing in the future is to determine the profit point:Expected target zone (Fibonacci series, support and resistance levels)Indicative exit (the most popular) - an exit based on indicator signals.Statistical expectation (channels, triangles) 
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