Europe is heavily dependent on Russian gas, accounting for all of Russia's gas exports. However, Russia is far from being the only supplier to the EU; there are other sellers of pipeline gas: Algeria; Libya; Turkmenistan; Kazakhstan.In addition, from Algeria, Libya and the United States comes liquefied gas through terminals in ports.There are also three other pipelines besides the Russian ones. However, they were used in Europe locally, because they were less profitable. Accordingly, the infrastructure was not prepared for them either.Gas pipelines to EuropeTrans-Sahara Gas PipelineThis pipeline will connect Nigeria, Algeria and Europe. It currently carries fuel from Algeria and Libya to Spain and Italy and from there it can be transported to other countries.The pipeline capacity is up to 30 billion cubic meters per year from Nigeria. But the capacity of the sections going to Europe will remain the same. So, annual deliveries will remain at the level of about 10% of European imports.It is important that this pipeline should "live" for a long time: Nigeria has the 10th largest gas reserves in the world. So the gas in the Trans-Sahara pipeline will run out later than in other pipelines.This year, at the instigation of Europe, Algeria and Nigeria returned to discussing the construction of the pipeline, and they want to launch it in the first half of 2023. But since the regions of Africa are turbulent, and there have been problems with repair and maintenance of the pipeline on the Trans-Sahara route before, additional investments and a lot of time may be required for the pipe to be able to pump large volumes.At the same time, due to the conflict between Algeria and Morocco, 12 billion cubic meters of gas are no longer transited to Europe annually. If these countries reconcile, the EU could see an inflow of this gas again.Eastern Mediterranean Gas PipelineThe East Mediterranean Gas Pipeline is used to transport gas from Israel to Greece and Italy. It is a fairly young pipeline, it is supposed to carry 12 billion cubic meters of gas per year. True, the gas reserves in Israel are small - only 0.2% of the world's gas reserves, but there is still the Aphrodite field in Cyprus, which is due to start operating in 2024-25. This year, however, the U.S. stopped sponsoring its development because of environmental concerns and Turkey's involvement.Trans-Caspian Gas PipelineTurkmenistan has the world's 6th largest gas reserves, while Kazakhstan has the 15th largest. The Trans-Caspian pipeline will connect these countries to the Southern Gas Corridor. In its current form, its throughput capacity is about 10 billion cubic meters of gas per year. Turkmenistan itself currently accounts for about 1% of European gas imports.But even here not everything is simple: in order to increase the volume of annual pumping, it is necessary to improve the pipes that go to Europe. And the Trans-Caspian pipeline itself may be difficult to build. Not only that: according to the 2018 convention, Russia may prohibit the creation of new pipelines in the Caspian Sea for environmental reasons.LNGAlmost half of Europe's gas imports are now LNG. It can come by sea from almost all over the world, although it is most profitable to buy African or U.S. gas. But Europe's problem is that it lacks the infrastructure for LNG.Spain could become a new European gas hub. It gets a lot of gas from Algeria and is the most infrastructurally prepared to receive LNG from the U.S. or Qatar. 72% of all Spanish gas imports come by sea in the form of LNG. It is enough to build a pipeline to France so that Europe can receive global LNG through a hub in Spain, but that too takes time and investment.In addition, you also need to build and modify the infrastructure to use LNG. And if a country has been using only classical gas for a long time - like Germany, for example - its infrastructure is hardwired for pipeline gas, and it will be difficult to change it.Another problem is in LNG tankers. There are only about 500 ships in the world, so there might not be enough for everybody at once. Europe alone buys about 3 billion cubic meters of liquefied gas a week - i.e. approximately 6 million cubic meters in the liquid form. To transport them, more than 30 tankers are needed every week, and it is not known whether they will always be available. And as the Russian pipelines are being abandoned, the need for LNG will only grow. This means more tankers will be needed, because other foreign pipelines simply won't be able to cover all the falling out of Russian capacity.As a result, there can be a fight for gas inside Europe. Whoever puts up more bids, that's where it goes. As a result, competition between the countries through which gas is transited cannot be ruled out. This is also true for LNG, which is distributed by pipeline, and for long foreign pipelines. Not only that: there is also competition with countries outside the EU.Will Russia stay in the European market?So far, the three key pipelines mentioned above can cover about half of Russia's supply shortfall. There is potential for volume growth - but it could take years. And even LNG will not solve the problem quickly. It can be brought, for example, to Spain - but this gas can not be delivered to any EU country, you need to build your own domestic pipelines.Thus, Russian gas supplies to Europe will remain for the years to come, though the EU will try to buy it at minimum. But in the long term, Russia itself may have problems: its exports, company revenues and budget will fall. Moreover, the secondary sanctions against countries working with Russia may become tougher after new regions join the Russian Federation. As a result, one cannot fully rely on "friendly" partners either. More about Natural Gas tradingIf you are interested in Natural Gas analytics, we recommend you to visit the analytics page, where you can find the latest analytics on Forex from top traders from all over the world. These analytics will be useful both for beginners and professional traders. The Forex signals service makes it much easier for beginners to make their first steps in trading on the financial markets. 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